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Overview Hypopituitarism refers to under-function of the Pituitary Gland. The term refers to both anterior and posterior pituitary gland dysfunction. It may be temporary or permanent. Panhypopituitarism refers to complete loss of all

Disc Disease

The vertebrae (bones) of the spinal column are separated from each other by cartilaginous cushions known as intervertebral discs. The discs provide structural support to the spine and act as shock absorbers, taking in the stress

Ovarian Cancer

Overview Women have two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs as well as the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is a disease in which normal ovarian cells begin to grow in an


What is acrylamide? Acrylamide (CH2=CH─CONH2) is a synthetic vinyl compound produced by the chemical industry mainly as a building block for polymers, particularly polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide is widely used in industrial

Escherichia Coli

Introduction Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, are Gram negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia species are also included in the group of genera referred to as the coliforms. Not

Okadaic Acid Toxins

What are okadaic acid toxins? The okadaic acid group of toxins (OA-toxins) are the cause of diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP), a foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of contaminated shellfish harvested from

Hepatitis A Virus

What is the hepatitis A virus? The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and the genus Hepatovirus. It is an enteric virus and causes a liver disease in humans now known as


What are noroviruses? Noroviruses is the name given to a group of related single-stranded RNA viruses that have recently been classified in the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus. These highly infectious enteric viruses are a major


What are ochratoxins? Ochratoxins are a small group of chemically related toxic fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by certain moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium growing on a wide range of raw food commodities. Some

Controlling Food Allergens

The issue of food allergy has become an increasingly important one for the food industry over the last ten years. The prevalence of allergic reactions to certain foods seems to be increasing in the population and legislation has been


What is melamine? Melamine is a synthetic triazine compound and an organic base (C3N6H6, CAS number 108-78-1) with the chemical name 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine. It is an important industrial chemical and has been used as a